In the German original, Marx simply says: substanzlosen Schein (p. 47). Translators who did not pay adequate attention to the distinction between theform and the content (substance) felt it necessary to include the word "independent," which Marx did not include. Struve translates substanzlosen with the words "without content," which accurately translates Marx's concept, which saw in the "substance" of value its content, as opposed to its form.
This 9 page paper reflects upon the arguments of Hobbes, Rousseau, Marx and Kant regarding the nature of mankind, human nature in general, and the impact on the development of the best possible regime based on the assumptions presented. This paper considers the philosophers� views of goodness, selfishness and depravity (or evil) and the way in which these elements impact a perspective on political theory. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Before Marx, the attention of the classical economists and their epigones was drawn either to the content of value, mainly its quantitative aspect (amount of labor), or to relative exchange value, i.e., to the quantitative proportions of exchange. Two extreme ends of the theory of value were subjected to analysis: the fact of development of productivity of labor and technique as the internal cause of changes of value, and the fact of relative changes of value of commodities on the market. But the direct connection was missing: the "form of value", i.e., value as the form which is characterized by the reification of production relations and the transformation of social labor into a property of the products of labor. This explains Marx's reproaches of his predecessors, which one might at first glance say are contradictory. He reproaches Bailey for examining the proportions of exchange, i.e., exchange value, ignoring value. He sees the shortcoming of the classics in the fact that they examined value and the magnitude of value, the content, and not the "form of value." Marx's predecessors, as was pointed out, paid attention to the content of value mainly from the quantitative aspect (labor and the magnitude of labor), and in the same way, the quantitative aspect of exchange value. They neglected the qualitative aspect of labor and value, the characteristic property of the commodity economy. Analysis of the "form of value" is precisely what gives a sociological character and specific traits to the concept of value. This "form of value" brings together the ends of the chain: the development of productivity of labor, and market phenomena. Without the form of value, these ends separate and each of them is transformed into a one-sided theory. We acquire labor expenditures from the technical side, independent from the social form of the material process of production (labor value as the logical category), and relative changes of prices on the market, a theory of prices which seeks to explain the fluctuations of prices outside of the sphere of the labor process and cut off from the basic fact of the social economy, from the development of productive forces.
A 12 page paper discussing these theorists' views on crime. Of course Durkheim's position is clear, but Freud and Marx had greater interest in other areas. Freud's views on individuals' behavior and theory of psychopathology can still be seen as being useful, though less so than when Freud synthesized his theories a century ago. Of the three, Marx is less relevant. He maintains that all will be happier as classes disappear, and the reader can infer that crime will diminish as well. We now know that is not a valid theory. Bibliography lists 13 sources.
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The viewpoints taken by Hamilton and Madison in the Federalist Papers are extremely different than those of Marx and Engels in The Communist Manifesto. This 7 page paper asserts that Marx and Engels were arguing that the capitalist system as it existed in Europe was flawed by way of the economic stratification that existed at the time. Their position held that freedom was derived by abandoning the yoke of economic class distinctions. The Manifesto greatly exceeded the Federalist papers in addressing the issues of freedom. No additional sources are listed.
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In Marx's theory we find a magnificent synthesis of the content and form of value on the one hand, and the qualitative and quantitative aspects of value on the other. In one passage Marx points out that Petty confused two definitions of value: "value as the form of social labor" and "the magnitude of value which is determined by equal labor time, according to which labor is treated as the source of value" (Theorien uber den Mehrwert, V. I, 1905, p. 11). Marx's greatness lies precisely in the fact that he gave a synthesis of both of these definitions of value. "Value as the material expression of the production relations among people," and "value as a magnitude determined by the quantity of labor or labor-time" - both of these definitions are inseparably connected in Marx's work. The quantitative aspect of the concept of value, on the analysis of which the classical economists predominantly concentrated, is examined by Marx on the basis of analysis of the qualitative aspect of value. It is precisely the theory of the form of value or of "value as the form of social labor" which represents the most specific part of Marx's theory of value as opposed to the theory of the classical economists. Among bourgeois scientists, one can frequently find the idea that the characteristic feature of Marx's work in comparison with the classical economists consists of his recognition of labor as the "source" or "substance" of value. As can be seen from the passages by Marx which we cited, the recognition of labor as the source of value can also be found among economists who are mainly interested in the quantitative phenomena related to value. In particular, the recognition of labor as the source of value can also be found in Smith and Ricardo. But we would look in vain to these writers for a theory of "value as the form of social labor."
This 5 page argumentative essays uses the writings of Plato, Marx and Thucydides to support the argument that democracy is the worst form of government. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
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A 14 page paper that utilizes the literature of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries to represent common perspectives about the themes of human happiness, love, passion, and the human condition during varying times in European history. Descartes, Hegel, Hume, Keats, & Marx are among the many authors discussed. Bibliography lists 16 sources.