Third, the scope of our study did not allow us to include all forms of language diversity in business settings. Brannen et al. () name technical or electronic language as potentially insightful avenues of research, whereas a large stream of discourse, rhetoric, and narrative analysis by organization theorists investigates how top managers recontextualize content through language, thus shaping sensemaking, organizational identities, and strategic orientations (Boje et al. ; Phillips et al. ). Future research could fruitfully connect the “linguistic turn in organizational research” (Alvesson and Kärreman ) focusing on rhetorical and metaphorical language with the linguistic turn in international business targeting on the multilingual realities in global corporations.
Regarding the group level of analysis, existing studies reveal that language barriers substantially influence team communication, knowledge sharing, and other processes. We therefore suggest that future researchers examine new group phenomenon such as co-located and virtual teams, and the roles of bilingual group members as boundary spanners and bridge-makers. Within these groups, future research could test theories of the consequences of linguistic ostracism (e.g., Robinson et al. ). More specifically, future studies could extend recent investigations on the language-based choice of communication media (Tenzer and Pudelko ) to probe the suitability of established frameworks like media richness theory (Daft and Lengel ) or media naturalness theory (Kock ) in multilingual settings. Finally, researchers could examine the interplay between linguistic identities and national, cultural, functional, location-based, gender-driven, age-related, or other identities to explore the disruptive potential of language-based faultlines (Thatcher and Patel ; Hinds et al. ) within and across multilingual groups.
Linguistic relativity theory can be applied to new topics such as cognitive theories of decision-making (Wood and Bandura ) and the related cross-cultural differences (Mann et al. ) or gendered structures of the workplace (Holmes ) such as the persistent gender gap in entrepreneurial activity. Social identity research could examine the development of linguistic identities over time and the congruence or divergence of MNC employees’ language-related identities with their national, functional, or location-based identities. Theories of intersectionality (Anthias ; Harper ) may help to conceptualize this complex interplay of multiple identities.
We followed the systematic literature review methodology (Tranfield et al. ) using Business Source Premier, JSTOR, and ProQuest to identify language-related research in international business. Following Cantwell and Brannen’s () positioning of the Journal of International Business Studies, we conceive of international business as a subject area covering contributions from a variety of business disciplines such as management, human resources, or marketing and other disciplines such as economics, psychology, and (in the specific case of our topic) linguistics. These multidisciplinary contributions are united by their focus on the MNC with its cross-border activities, strategies, business processes, organizational forms, and other ramifications as a common subject matter. Regarding our specific topic, language-related publications written by management scholars, linguists, communication scholars, or members of other disciplines are equally classified as international business contributions as long as they study language in a business context.
which basically states that language shapes one’s identity
These searches led us to a variety of publications in a broad set of journals. Our review starts in 1987 with the earliest publications we identified and continues until December 31, 2016, thus spanning three decades. Our sample comprises work that is already in the public domain, i.e. has been published or appeared online first on a journal website, but excludes forthcoming articles. We omitted monographs and book chapters, as these publications are not listed in the databases we searched and could therefore not be systematically gathered. We also omitted book or thesis reviews, as well as introductions to special issues as they do not include original research. We only included publications which had one of our search terms in the abstract, keywords, or hypotheses. Furthermore, we discarded those which only considered language as one out of many independent or moderator variables, unless this variable was discussed separately in the results and discussion section and unless the related results yielded theoretical implications. To further delineate the scope of our review, we focused on publications dealing with diversity in national or corporate languages, with English as a global language or with the dynamic interplay between these aspects. We omitted studies of rhetorical (see e.g., Fiol ), metaphorical (see e.g., Cornelissen ), or symbolic (see e.g., Astley and Zammuto ) language use, which do not focus on the effects of language diversity, but rather on the representations of language. We also excluded communication research dealing with discourse, narratives and sensemaking rather than multiple and different languages per se (see e.g., Cooren et al. ).
Free Essays on My Community Shaped My Identity
Davis uses conventional, colloquial and Nyoongah language to shape the themes of power and cultural identity as well as construct characters both stereotypical and non-stereotypical.
The early marginalization of language research in international business also becomes evident in publication outlets. Until a decade ago, most language research had appeared in fairly specialized journals with only occasional publications in more mainstream International Business journals such as International Business Review, Journal of World Business, and Management International Review. Only international marketing and consumer behavior have seen a relatively early attention to the topic of language in its top journals, with a 1994 publication in Journal of Consumer Research and three further publications in Journal of Consumer Research and Journal of Marketing between 2005–2010, all focusing on linguistics in advertising. Even between 2005 and 2010, just two publications on language topics appeared in respectively a top Management (Journal of Management Studies) and International Business journal (Journal of International Business Studies). It isn’t until the last 5 years that the topic seems to have acquired mainstream legitimacy and we see regular publications in top journals such as American Economic Review, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Management, Journal of Management Studies, Leadership Quarterly, Organization Science, and Psychological Science.
In addition, religion shapes the identity
It is not easy for us to conceive how Guugu Yimithirr speakers experience the world, with a crisscrossing of cardinal directions imposed on any mental picture and any piece of graphic memory. Nor is it easy to speculate about how geographic languages affect areas of experience other than spatial orientation — whether they influence the speaker’s sense of identity, for instance, or bring about a less-egocentric outlook on life. But one piece of evidence is telling: if you saw a Guugu Yimithirr speaker pointing at himself, you would naturally assume he meant to draw attention to himself. In fact, he is pointing at a cardinal direction that happens to be behind his back. While we are always at the center of the world, and it would never occur to us that pointing in the direction of our chest could mean anything other than to draw attention to ourselves, a Guugu Yimithirr speaker points through himself, as if he were thin air and his own existence were irrelevant.